Skip to main content

Full text of "Alaskan glacier studies of the National Geographic Society in the Yakutat Bay, Prince William Sound and lower Copper River regions"

See other formats

320                                ALASKAN GLACIER STUDIES    .
denhall1 in 1898, the Barry Glacier being briefly mentioned in the later accounts. In 1794, 1887 and 1898 Barry Glacier extended nearly across to Point Doran, so that, from near Pt. Pakenham, at the northern end of Port Wells, Barry Arm seemed to terminate there.
It was not until 1899 that the existence of the southwestern portion of the fiord was discovered by white men, though Grant states that native seal hunters had previously entered it. In that year, the Harriman Expedition, going close to the front of Barry Glacier, discovered the inlet to the southwest which they entered and explored. The Harriman, Cataract, Surprise, Serpentine, and smaller glaciers were described for the first time by various members of the party,2 including G. K. Gilbert.8 A map was made by Gannett4 (PI. CXXIX, A), and the glaciation of Harriman Fiord and Port Wells was studied.
In 1905, 1908 and 1909 Harriman Fiord was visited by Grant,6 Paige and Higgins, who remapped the glaciers, taking many photographs, describing the great retreat of Barry Glacier from 1899 to 1909, and giving many new facts about the glaciers and glaciation of the region.
The National Geographic Society's expedition of 1910 spent July 25th to August 2d in Harriman Fiord and Port Wells, studying the glaciers and the former glaciation,6 making special maps of a number of the ice tongues, and soundings throughout Harriman Fiord and Port Wells.
Barry Glacier. Barry Glacier, heading in snowfields on Mt. Gannett and unnamed peaks 8000 to 9000 feet high, west of the cascading glaciers of College Fiord, has a known length of over 9 miles, and is about a mile wide in its lower valley. Close to the terminus it is joined by the Cascade and Coxe Glaciers, cascading tributaries each hah* a mile wide, which increase the width of the main glacier to a mile and three eighths at the terminus. The glacier ends in a wide ice precipice between 200 and 800 feet high, discharging small icebergs. The slope of the main glacier surface is 350 to 400 feet to the mile and it is severely crevassed from side to side.
The Coxe and Cascade tributaries, severely-crevassed, cascading glaciers, slope 2000 to 3000 feet to the mile. The former, heading in cirques near Mt. Coville 7 and Mt. Emerson, has no medial moraines. There is a lateral moraine on the west side but none on the east. This western lateral moraine coalesces with a lateral and east medial of
i Mendenhall, W. C., 20th Ann. Kept., U. S. Geol. Survey, Part YE, 1900, p. 326 and Map 16.
i Gannett, Henry, Nat. Geog. Mag., Vol. X, 1899, pp. 510-i611; Bull. Amer. Geog. Soc., Vol. TTCVT, 1899, pp. 846-347, 354-855; Harriman Alaska Ezpeditioa, Vol. n, 1901, p. 263; also Muir, John, Ibid^ Vol. I, 1901, pp. 182-183; also Burroughs, John, Ibid., Vol. I, 1901, pp. 71-74. Many of the photographs most useful in connection with the subsequent retreat of the glaciers are by C. Hart Merriam.
 Gilbert, G. K, Harriman Alaska Expedition, Vol. DI, 1904, pp. 89-97, 174, 176. *Ibid.   PI. Xm, facing p. 80.
 Tidewater Glaciers of Prince William Sound and Kenai Peninsula, Bull. U. S. Geol. Survey (in preparation); in Reid's Variations of Glaciers, Journ. Geol., Vol. XIV, 1906, p.   407; Ibid., Vol.  XIV, 1908, p. 671; also maps in Bull. 284, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1906, JRg. 4, p. 79; Ibid., Bull. 879, 1909, PI. IV facing p. 88; Ibid., Bull. 443,1910, PI, I, facing p. 10, and PL n, in pocket; Glaciers of Port Wells, Prince William Sound, Bull. Amer. Geog. Soc., Vol. XLIQ, 1911, pp. 327-338.
 Martin, Lawrence, Nat. Geog. Mag., Vol. XXII, 1011, pp. 650-551, 553-560; Gletscheruntersuchungen langs der Ktlste von Alaska, Petermann's Geog., Mitteflungen, Jahrgang 1912, Septemberheft, pp. 147-149; Collier's Weekly, Vol. XLVE, No. 17, 1911, p. 20.
i Named in 1910 for Frederick V. Coville who visited this region in 1899 with the Harriman Expedition.